Scala concepts: View

The .view syntax creates a structure that mirrors another structure, until "forced" by an eager operation like .toList, .foreach, .forall, .count.

In the example below, we can see the view in action:

var counted = 0

val resultingList = List(1, 2, 3, 4).view
  .map { num =>
    counted = counted + 1
    num + 1

assert(resultingList == List(2, 3))

assert(counted == 2)

If we add a side-effect inside a map (don't do this normally!), We note that items 3 and 4 are never touched/evaluated, meaning we perform a "lazy" computation.

This is very similar to an Iterator, except views can be Indexed, and also reversed, which is a tremendously useful fact when dealing with arrays, for example when you want to zip two arrays together, such as in CheckArrayIsAPalindrome

On views, you can perform almost any typical collection operation, such as `maxBy`, `count`, `flatMap` and so forth.

And you can get views from almost any data type. Benefits other than lazy computation include potentially fusing of operations by the Java compiler, because instead of creating a new list for every stage, you evaluate new items one-by-one, meaning that if there are any optimisations to be made per one-item basis, you may get a performance boost.